FSSAI- Food Testing of Meat and Fish
Consumption of meat and fish in India has increased rapidly over a decade, their nutritive value is really high and that is why part of a large number of people. Under section 2(
5) of Food Safety and Standard (Food Product Standards and Food Additives) Regulations, 2011 standards for meat, meat products, fish and fish products are given. These standards comprises of microbiological requirements.
Various methods are being elaborated by FSSAI for testing standard of meat and fish and its products to check microbiological requirements and chemical requirements in the products.
Methods of Analyzing Meat and Meat Products
1. Preparation of Samples- If small test samples are taken then the product may loosen moisture during subsequent preparation and handling so the samples should be stored in glass or similar containers with air and water with a tight cover.
Examples of Preparation of sample could be:
- Fresh and frozen meat, cured meats, smoked meats etc.
- Canned meats
2. Determination of Nitrite- This method describes a spectrophotometric method for determining nitrite based on the reaction of nitrite and sulfanilamide to form diazonium salts, and then combines diazotized sulfanilamide with N- (1 Naphthyl) ethylenediamine dihydrochloride to form the most common azo dye. . Measured spectrophotometrically.
3. Ascorbic Acid Determination- Ascorbic acid reduces the indicator dye to reduce oxidation 2, 6 dichlorophenol Indophenol in a colorless solution. Finally the undigested excess dye rose pink is an acid solution. Vitamin is extracted and titration is made in the presence of a solution of metaphosphoric acidacetic acid to maintain proper acidity and to prevent auto-oxidation of ascorbic acid at high pH.
4. Determination of total phosphorus content- Mineral component testing (liquid digestion) with sulfuric and nitric acid, phosphorus content such as quinoline phosphomolybdate and drying and moisture content.
5. Examination of the presence of polyphosphates- Extraction of meat or meat product with trichloro acetic acid, purification of serum obtained by a mixture of ethanol / diethyl ether, separation of phosphates by a thin layer of chromatography and the detection of polyphosphates by spraying with reagents to improve color.Some Methods of Testing fish and fish products
1. Preparation of sample
• Frozen Fish
• Canned Fish
2. Determination of Total Volatile Bases- The method is based on the process of semi micro distillation. Extracts or solutions are made of alkaline sodium hydroxide and the bases are ground steam into a normal acid and then added to normal alkali.
3. Determination of Histamine- The presence of Histamine is also an indication of decay and has been linked to scombroid poisoning. Histamine is produced during the preservation of pelagic species e.g. tuna, mackerel, carangidaie species at high temperatures.
4. Determination of moisture- Measure up about 5 grams of prepared sample in a moist bowl with lids. Dry in an air oven at 100 - 1 ° C for 5 hours. Place the lid on the container and cool in the dessicator. Quickly measure the meal. Return the dish with a lid to the oven and dry for another 30 min. Cool in a dessicator and measure again. Repeat until successive weights do not differ more than 1 mg.
5. Determination of Sodium Chloride
6. Determination of Ash insoluble in dilute HCL
Meat and fish quality inspections are very important as manufacturers and retailers must ensure that the products are safe and can meet consumer expectations. Meat and fish are highly corrosive due to the influence of many death-following factors, so their loss of quality (safety, nutrition, and sensory properties) is extremely rapid. The shelf life of these products can be defined as the time that occurs between production and degradation, which is caused by biological chemical reactions and microbiological activity.