Food Testing of Milk and Milk Products

Food Testing of Milk and Milk Products
05 February 2022

Food Testing of Milk and Milk Products

Introduction


Milk has been used by humans since the beginning of the recorded era to provide both fresh and nutritious food. In some countries about half the milk produced is consumed as fresh, low-fat or skim milk. However, mostly milk is made from commercial dairy products used worldwide, such as butter, cheese, dried milk, ice cream, and condensed milk.


Cow's milk is a major breed used worldwide. Other dairy products include buffalo milk, goat’s milk (in the Mediterranean), and sheep (southern Europe). This section focuses on the processing of cow's milk and dairy products unless otherwise noted. In general, the processing technology described in cow's milk can be used effectively with milk from other breeds.


Types of liquid milk and milk product mentioned under FSSAI


Buffalo milk, cow milk, goat milk, sheep milk, mixed milk, standardized milk, full cream milk, recombined milk, toned milk, double toned milk, and skimmed milk are laid down under FSSAI Rules.


Other than liquid
Cream, including sterilised cream, whipped cream and malai, Cream powder, Curd or dahi, Chhanna or paneer, Cheese (all varieties), Ice cream, softy ice cream, chocolate ice cream, kulfi, milk ices or milk lollies and frozen dessert / confection, Dried ice cream mix / dried frozen dessert / confection, Condensed / evaporated (sweetened, unsweetened and skimmed) milk, Milk powder (whole, skimmed, partially skimmed) infant milk food, infant formula, milk cereal weaning food, processed cereal based weaning food, Khoa, Table (creamery), and deshi butter,Ghee / butter fat /butter oil and anhydrous milk fat / anhydrous butter oil, Chakka and shrikhand, Yoghurt, Whey powder, Edible casein products, Determination of lactose by colorimetric method in milk based sweets, Determination of total nitrogen content in milk/milk product by kjeldahl method, Determination of melamine and cyanuric acid in milk, milk product and infant formulae – guidelines.



Preparation of Sample of Milk


Samples are received after a few days of extraction and contain a preservative (0.4% formalin). Heat the sample to 37- 40 ° C by transferring it to a beaker and storing it in a water bath stored at 40 - 45 °C then mix the sample well by pouring it into a bottle, mix it to remove any residual fat from the sides and pour it into a beaker. During mixing do not force the bottle. The sample must be allowed to reach room temperature and should be withdrawn immediately for its analysis. If small lumps or lumps are detected in a non-dispersible sample, a few drops of alcohol ammonia may be used during mixing. If even after the homogenization procedure the sample shows lumps or lumps or droplets of oil that appear to suggest lactation / separation of milk, the sample should be considered inappropriate for analysis and rejected.


Importance of Milk Testing
Milk is one of the most consumed product all over the world, the reasons why its is important to test milk are:


1. High quality milk comes from healthy cows that do not have breast cancer.


2. Since farmers are paid on the basis of dairy components and the SCC, the processor provides this test result to the farmer. Many farmers rely on these results to monitor milk quality.


3. 87% water-based milk is often cheated by unscrupulous people and unscrupulous farm workers.


4. The processor or milk carrier will only be guaranteed the quality of raw milk if certain quality tests are performed at different stages of the transfer of milk from the producer to the processor and ultimately to the consumer.


5. Its high nutritional value makes it an ideal breeding ground for rapid germination, especially under poor production and storage at local temperatures.


This should ensure that people's health and nutrition are protected from the use of contaminated and substandard food and that prices are fair to dairy producers, dairy producers and consumers.


The mentioned points are possible only if Food Safety and Standard Authority of India establishes a workable quality testing and assurance system and the industries conforms to national or internationally acceptable standard.