Any substance that is not generally ingested as a food by itself and is not normally utilised as a typical food ingredient, whether or whether it has nutritious value, and which is intentionally added to food for a technological purpose (including organoleptic) manufacturing, processing, preparation, treatment, packing, and packaging purposes the transit or storage of such food results, or can reasonably be expected to result (directly or indirectly). Resulting in it or its bye products becoming a component or otherwise influencing the environment such meals'. The term excludes pollutants and compounds that have been introduced to food in order to retain or improve its nutritional value.
Preservatives are chemicals that are added to food to keep it from spoiling due to microbial growth. Preservative is defined as "a material capable of suppressing, retarding, or arresting the process of fermentation, acidification, or other degradation of food when applied to food" under Section 3.1.4 of the FSS (Food Product Standards and Food Additives) Regulations, 2011. Class I and Class II preservatives are the two types.
Nonnutritive sweeteners are chemicals that are used instead of sugars (such as sucrose, corn syrup, honey, and agave nectar) to sweeten foods, beverages, and other items including oral care products and some pharmaceuticals. Non-nutritive sweeteners (also known as sugar substitutes or artificial sweeteners) have very few calories and no nutrients. Plants, herbs, and even sugar itself can be used to make them. Because they have higher sweetness intensity than sugar, they can be used to flavour foods and beverages in lower amounts.
(a)Natural and (b) Synthetic colours can be used to colour food. They can also be divided into two categories: (a) water soluble and (b) oil soluble. Before they can be identified, they must be separated from food. Chlorophyll, carotenes, cantaxanthene, riboflavin, annatto, saffron, turmeric, curcumin, caramel, and other natural colours include chlorophyll, carotenes, cantaxanthene, riboflavin, annatto, saffron, turmeric, curcumin, and caramel. Synthetic colours are significant since they are frequently employed in a variety of cuisines. Acidic and basic dyes are the two types. Under the rules of the FSS (Food Product Standards & Food Additives) Regulations, 2011, only eight coal-tar food colours are allowed to be used in specified food products.
To combat oxidative rancidity, antioxidants are added to oils and fats. FSS, Rules and Regulations, 2011 allow ethyl, propyl, octyl, and dodecyl gallates, butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), tertiary butyl hydroquinone (TBHQ), and resin guaic, ascorbic acid, and tocopheropl.
Emulsifiers, Stabilisers, and Thickening
Emulsifiers, stabilisers, and thickening agents are a collection of organic chemicals that include a wide range of organic compounds. To make and stabilise food emulsions, compounds like stearyl tartrate, glycerol esters like glycerylmonostearate, propylene glycol esters, and sorbitan esters of fatty acids, cellulose ethers, and sodium carboxymethyl cellulose are used. Thickening agents include pectin, alginates, agar, Irish moss, cellulose, carboxy methyl cellulose, starch, and gums such as guar gum, gum Arabic, karaya gum, gum ghathi, tragacanth gum, locust bean gum, gelatin, and others.
Flavors and Flavor Additives
Flavors and flavour enhancers are a diverse range of chemical substances found in nature, both natural and manmade. They're utilised in trace amounts to give foods a distinct flavour. Menthol, vanillin, and monosodium glutamate are all interesting compounds since they are widely utilised in food. Menthol is mostly utilised in the flavouring of confectionary and panmasala. Vanillin is widely used in ice creams, and monosodium glutamate is widely used to enhance the flavour of meat, soups, and other foods, and gas chromatography is widely used to determine various flavouring compounds.